Research and Writing

Links for Resources for Student Writing: 

Citation Guide for Historical Writing:  Download the pdf version or see below
In the field of history, scholars follow the Chicago Manual of Style (also known as “Turabian” Style) Rules for citation formatting.

Style Guide for Footnotes and Bibliography:

Book with One Author


Woodthrush, John R. Songs My Father Taught Me. New Haven: Birdwatchers Press, 1985.


¹John R. Woodthrush, Songs My Father Taught Me (New Haven: Birdwatchers Press, 1985), 212-24.

Book with Two Authors


Unwin, L.P., and Joseph Galloway. Peace in Ireland. Boston: No Such Press, 1984.


2L.P. Unwin and Joseph Galloway, Peace in Ireland (Boston: No Such Press, 1984), 19.

Book with an Editor, Compiler, or Translator


Wiley, Bell I., ed. [or trans.] Slaves No More: Letters from Liberia, 1833-1869. Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980.


3Bell I. Wiley, Bell I., ed. [or trans.], Slaves No More: Letters from Liberia, 1833-1869 (Lexington: University Press of Kentucky, 1980), 367-412.

Books with More than One Volume


Byrne, Muriel St. Clare, ed. The Lisle Letters. 6 vols. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981.


4Muriel St. Clare Byrne, ed., The Lisle Letters (Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1981), 5:124.

Chapters or Parts of a Book with Multiple Authors and an Editor


Kaiser, Ernest. “The Literature of Harlem.” In Harlem: A Community in Transition, edited by J. H. Clarke. New York: Citadel Press, 1964.


5Ernest Kaiser, “The Literature of Harlem,” in Harlem: A Community in Transition, ed. J. H. Clarke (New York: Citadel Press, 1964), 53.

Journal Articles


Robertson, Noel. “The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual.” Classical Philology 75 (1980): 1-22.


6Noel Robertson, “The Dorian Migration and Corinthian Ritual,” Classical Philology 75 (1980): 9-14.

Encyclopedia Entries (note – these should not be placed in your bibliography)


7Encyclopedia Brittanica, 11th ed., s.v. “original package.”

Online References


Taibi, Catherine. “Rachel Maddow Goes on Letterman, Wears Awesome Shoes, Laughs at Potential 2016 Nominees.” Huffington Post. January 29, 2015. Accessed January 29, 2015.


8Catherine Taibi, “Rachel Maddow Goes on Letterman, Wears Awesome Shoes, Laughs at Potential 2016 Nominees,” Huffington Post, January 29, 2015, accessed January 29, 2015,

Electronic Books

According to the Chicago Manual of Style: “If a book is available in more than one format, cite the version you consulted. For books consulted online, list a URL; include an access date only if one is required by your publisher or discipline. If no fixed page numbers are available, you can include a section title or a chapter or other number.”


Austen, Jane. Pride and Prejudice. New York: Penguin Classics, 2007. Kindle edition.


9Jane Austen, Pride and Prejudice (New York: Penguin Classics, 2007), Kindle edition.

Subsequent References

In footnotes, never use ibid., idem, or op. cit. for subsequent references to the first citation. Simply shorten the author and title after the first, and therefore full, reference. We give as an example only the first below. The rest on this list will simply follow this model.

Example: 10Woodthrush, Songs, 351.

NOTE: Chicago Style differentiates between footnote citations and bibliographical citations in key ways. Below, you will find examples of the most common source citations in Chicago Style for both of these formats.

If you do not see what you’re looking for, visit for a searchable database of all your citation-writing needs.

Links to External Resources:

What’s not here:

If what you seek is not here, we recommend that you search one of the many printed and online guides to Chicago/Turabian style. There you will find examples of greater complexity: public documents, unpublished materials (manuscripts and letters in archives, conference papers, interview transcripts, et al), sound and video recordings, legal cases, microform and microfilm materials, magazines and newspapers, plays and poems, classical literature, et al.

We recommend that you visit the following websites: